Incorporating the Tuning Approach in Higher Education curricular reforms and course design in Tanzania for enhancing graduates’ competencies: stakeholders’ views

Johnson Muchunguzi Ishengoma

Abstract


Available documentary and research evidences reveal that the majority of Tanzania universities’ graduates (public and private universities) lack competencies or technical skills (employability skills) required for the job market and by potential employers, despite massive curricular reforms implemented in the public higher education sector since the early 1990s. Lack of employability skills which consequently leads to graduate unemployment or un-employability is attributable to the fact that curricular reforms and design in Tanzania public universities undertaken by lecturers and professors do not incorporate basic Tuning principles of competence-based teaching and learning which puts emphasis on competencies and skills by identifying generic and specific competencies during course design or curriculum reform. This study using the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM)’s School of Education sought to: (1) explore faculty and students’ views on the application of the Tuning approach in curricular reforms and degree/course design as a mitigation of university graduates’ unemployment and un-employability, (2) solicit stakeholders’(academic staff and students) perceptions of Tuning approach and its relevance in higher education curriculum reforms and design to make higher education more competence-based, and (3) find out students perceived causes of graduate unemployment and un-employability and whether the application of Tuning approach in curriculum reforms and design in universities can be a solution to graduate unemployment. Findings from the study reveal that both faculty and students concur that application of Tuning approach in higher education reforms and curricular design could enhance graduates competences and skills and reduce graduate unemployment.

First published online: 30 November 2017


Keywords


tuning approach; graduate’ unemployment; graduates’unemployability; market-driven degree courses; graduate competencies

Full Text:

PDF

References


African Union. Harmonization of Higher Education Programs in Africa: A Strategy for the African Union: Summary Report, 2007. Addis Ababa: African Union.

Awono Onana, Charles, Olusola Bandele Oyewole, Damtew Teferra, Pablo Beneitone, Julia González, and Robert Wagenaar, eds. Tuning and Harmonization of Higher Education: The African Experience. Bilbao: University of Deusto, 2014.

Dill, David D. “Allowing the Market to Rule: The Case of the United States.” Higher Education Quarterly, 57 (2) (2003): 136-157.

Druckworth, Ernest. “Helping Students Get to Where Ideas Can Find Them.” The New Educator 5, no. 3 (2009): 185-188.

East African Community (EAC). East African Qualification Framework for Higher Education (EAQFHE). Arusha: EAC, April, 2015.

European Commission. Employers’ Perception of Graduate Employability. Analytical Report November 2010. Catania: University of Catania,Center for the Study of European Labor Law.

Hahn, Karola, and Damtew Teferra. “Tuning as Instrument of Systematic Higher Education Reform and Quality Enhancement: The African Experience.” Tuning Journal for Higher Education 1, no.1 (November 2013): 127-163.

Hanlie, Griesel, and Ben Parker. Graduates Attributes. A Baseline Survey of South African Graduates from the Perspectives of Employers. Pretoria: Higher Education South Africa and The South African Qualifications Authority, 2009.

Inter University Council of East Africa (IUCEA). Roadmap to Quality. Handbook for Quality Assurance in Higher Education. IUCEA: Kampala, 2010.

Ishengoma, Johnson Muchunguzi. “The Role of African Flagship Universities: The Case of the University of Dar es Salaam.” In Flagship Universities in Africa, edited by Damtew Teferra, 373-423. London: Palgrave McMillan, 2017.

Kaijage, Erasmus, S. “Knowledge and Skills of the Bachelor of Commerce Graduates of the Faculty of Commerce and Management, UDSM in the Job Market.” Accessed August 10, 2017, http://rc.aau.org/files/kaijage.pdf.

Khaled Ahmed, Ahmed. “Teacher-Centered Teaching versus Learner-Centered Teaching Style.” The Journal of Global Business Management 9, no. 1 (2013): 22-34.

Lyata, Ndyali. “Higher Education System and Jobless Graduates in Tanzania.” Journal of Education and Practice 7, no 4 (2016): 116-121.

Mamdani, Mahmood. Scholars in the Marketplace: The Dilemmas of Neo-Liberal Reform at Makerere University, 1989-2005. Dakar: CODESRIA, 2007.

Mitchelsen, Heike, and Frank Hartwich. University-Based Agricultural Research: A Comparative Study in Sub Saharan Africa 2004. The Hague: International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR), 2004.

Moalasi, Richie, M. Tunde Oladiran, and Jacek Uziak. “Students’ Perspective on the Attainment of Graduate Attributes through a Design Project.” Global Journal of Engineering Education 14, no. 1 (2012): 40-46.

Moll, Ian. “Curriculum Responsiveness: The Anatomy of a Concept,” In Curriculum Responsiveness: Case Study of Higher Education, edited by Hanlie, Griesel, 1-26. Pretoria: South African Universities Vice Chancellors’ Association (SAUVCA).

Munene, Ishmael. Profits and Pragmatism: The Commercial Lives of Market Universities in Kenya and Uganda. SAGE Open (October-December 2015): 1-14. doi: 10.1177/2158244015612519.

Mushi, Paul Sawaya Dominic. “Capacity Plunder in the Educational Reform Processes in the Regional Africa: The Need for Intersession in Curriculum.” Paper presented at PGDCDD, Dar es Salaam, 2009.

National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE). Job Outlook for 2016. Accessed April 28, 2017. https//www.kent.ac.uk/careers/sk/top-ten-skills.htm

National Council for Higher Education (NCHE). Employability of Graduates: Makerere University Tracer Study of the 2012 Graduates. Kampala: Makerere University, April 2015.

Ogude, Nthabiseng, Nel Heather, and Martin Oosthuizen. The Challenge of Curriculum Responsiveness in South African Higher Education. Pretoria: Council on Higher Education (Undated).

Villa Sanchez, Aurelio, and Manuel Poblete Ruiz. “Competence-based learning.” In Competence-Based Learning: A Proposal for Assessment, edited by Aurelio Villa Sanchez and Manuel Poblete Ruiz, 31-62. Bilbao: University of Deusto, 2008.

Schomburg, Harald. Carrying Out Tracer Studies. Guide to Anticipating and Matching Skills and Jobs. Luxembourg: European Union, 2016.

Slowey, Maria, and Kozina Ekaterina. “New Knowledge-New Learning? Curriculum Change in Higher Education and Academic Engagement in the Bologna Process in Ireland.” In Handbook of Research on Didactic Strategies and Technologies for Education: Incorporating Advancements, edited by Paulo M Pumilia-Gnarini et al., Hershey, Pennsylvania: IGI Global, (2013).

Tanzania Commission for Universities (TCU). Tanzania National Qualification Framework. Final Draft. Dar es Salaam: TCU, 2010.

_____. Students Enrolled in Universities and University Colleges by Program Categories, 2006/07-2013/14. Dar es Salaam: TCU, 2016.

_____. Statistical Data of Teaching Staff in Higher Education, 2015. Dar es Salaam: TCU, 2016.

_____. List of Universities that Have Been Banned to Admit Students 2017/18. Dar es Salaam: TCU, July 24, 2017.

University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM). Annual Report 2013/14. Dar es Salaam: University of Dar es Salaam (2014).

UDSM. Report on the Monitoring of Teaching and Learning Processes in Semester II, 2015/16. Dar es Salaam: UDSM, 2016.

_____. University of Dar es Salaam Undergraduate Prospectus 2016/2017. Dar es Salaam: UDSM, 2017.

Watson, David, Robert Hollister, Susan E. Stroud, and Elizabeth Babcock. The Engaged University. International Perspectives on Civic Engagement. London : Routledge, 2011.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18543/tjhe-5(1)-2017pp121-169

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.